Steven C. Roach (born November 1, 1964) is an American professor of International Relations who writes on global ethics, the politics of international law, critical international theory, minority rights, and South Sudan’s politics. He is currently Director of Graduate Programs (Ph.D. MA, MLA. MALACS) at the School of Interdisciplinary Global Studies at the University of South Florida.
Education and Career
Roach earned his doctorate from the Josef Korbel School of International Studies at the University of Denver in 2002. He received his M.A from San Francisco State University in 1995 and his BA from Colgate University in 1987. From 2002 to 2005 he was appointed visiting professor at Colorado State University at Pueblo and a visiting lecturer at the University of Colorado Boulder. In 2020, he served as the country expert of a USAID work team and its Democracy, Human Rights, and Governance (DRG) assessment report of South Sudan. Professor Steven Roach is a member of several editorial and consultancy boards.
Ethical Values and Global Politics
A central focus of Roach’s work is the interaction of ethical values and political power. His recent work uses the relationship between decency and moral accountability to study the growing political pressures that threaten the liberal international order. In a 2016 interview with E-IR, he points out that the gap between humanitarian values and emotion has never been greater; that it is not simply the hostile emotions that explain right-wing populism, but liberalism’s detachment from these sentiments.
Politics of International Law
Roach is one the first political scientists to systematically explore the political forces shaping the International Criminal Court. His notion of political legalism functions as a pragmatic instrument to study how best to bring justice to the worst perpetrators of serious crimes. In an article published by Global Governance, he argues that the court cannot escape the effects of operating in an international system. It needs to confront this difficult and complex political reality of the ICC by devising new ways of thinking about its agency and by adopting the political strategies needed to balance the demand for global justice against the constraints of the international system.
Governance in South Sudan
Roach has conducted extensive field research in South Sudan and written on the many challenges of governance in South Sudan, Africa’s 54th state. His short essays have appeared in Foreign Affairs, African Arguments, and the Cairo Review of Global Affairs, and in 2019, he co-edited The Challenge of Governance in South Sudan. In 2017, he published an article in International Affairs, which argued that the unstable politics of accountability stems of South Sudan’s undeveloped institutions.
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Most businesses in the 1990’s used computers loaded with Microsoft operating systems, and this still holds tru today. During this time, the Macintosh was already a successful line of computers, but it really found itself catering to niche specific verticals. People with creative careers like graphic design, web design, audio production, and video production, were more likely to use Mac computers than an accountant or a lab technician. Windows truly dominated the space, until Apple re-positioned itself as a true contender in the personal computer market. Steve Jobs made his return and innovated countless products that changed the lives of millions of people around the world. From smart iPods, to iPhones, and the Mac Book Pro, Apple has risen to the top of the industry.
With Apple devices so prominent all over the world right now, it’s hard to imagine a time when they weren’t around. However, their success isn’t just down to luck; there are many years of hard work behind the company. Today, we want to look back to these early days and discover the real history of Apple technology.
Back in 1976, a company called Apple Computers launched, and it had Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs as the founders. Initially, the pair would work in Jobs’ garage in California. If you’re wondering when Apple started to do things differently, it was actually right at the beginning. When the Apple I desktop was released, it came pre-assembled with a single motherboard, a unique proposition for the market.
In 1977, they revealed the Apple II, and this came with floppy disk slots, an integrated keyboard and case, and plenty of other new features. Three years later, they intended to propel forward yet again with the Apple III. However, this release didn’t go so well. Not only was it forced to compete with the IBM Personal Computer, but it also had all sorts of technical problems. Eventually, Apple had to recall a number of units, and the reputation of the company took a huge hit.
After two successful computers and one failure, it was back to the drawing board for Wozniak and Jobs. Suddenly, everything was about to change for Apple forever, and it came with the release of their most successful product to date; the Macintosh. Key features included;
Despite this hugely successful launch, it was marred by drama when Jobs was forced out of the company in 1985. For around 12 years, Jobs stayed away and worked on a new project, NeXT Inc. In 1997, Apple bought the company and Jobs returned, and it took around one year for the company to release the iMac after his return.
With the Macintosh a staple in the market by the early 2000s, the company moved their attention elsewhere, and this led to the first-ever iPod model in 2001. With the original iPod alongside the iPod Nano, Shuffle, and Touch, they sold just short of 400 million units by the time we reached 2015.
In 2007, Apple also entered the cell phone market and announced the release of its iPhone. After six million sales and lots of positivity in the market, they were encouraged to proceed with more models, and these would go on to introduce facial recognition, GPS navigation, Touch ID, high-quality camera and video, and more. Today, the iPhone is usually the most popular cell phone over a given year, and Apple continues to invest in new features and models.
The development of all these products has created jobs outside of the Apple stores that sell them, there are third party developers that have been allowed to create software, accessories, and other hardware components. Apple repair stores are popular around the country, as are apple support services, and apple kiosks. As future products develop, we anticipate these businesses to continue to evolve with Apple as they grow into other industries such as Apple TV and payment processing.
Sadly, after a battle with neuroendocrine cancer, Steve Jobs passed away towards the end of 2011. During an unfortunate time for the company, Tim Cook was announced as the new CEO. Since then, Cook has managed to build on the fantastic work from Jobs and release new generations of iPhones, iMacs, MacBooks, and iPads. What’s more, they have even expanded into new markets with the HomePod and Apple Watch.
With such a strong foundation underneath the company, we’re sure Apple will continue to succeed. By coupling strong products with advanced customer service, Apple has a loyal following, and they actually became the first US company, in 2019, to surpass a valuation of $1 trillion.
Most businesses host end of year parties, milestone celebrations, and other festive events. Co-workers frequently join each other for food and drinks after work, and many of these functions end with people getting behind that wheel that shouldn’t. So what should you do if you have been arrested for DUI and detained? Well, the best thing you can do is call your lawyer. Here is why.
It does not matter how many drinks you had; drinking and driving is against the law. Being pulled over by a police officer is never a pleasant experience, especially if they dock you with a dreaded DUI charge. This can be an utterly shocking and confusing time for you, which is why you need to take the necessary steps in finding an excellent criminal attorney to stand by your side.
Having a professional attorney who specialized in DUI cases is a must have essential if you are in the midst one on yourself. There are many ways that a DUI attorney can help your situation and improve the probability of a favorable outcome.
When you hire a DUI attorney, they will take the time to thoroughly go through all the details of your case to find any vital evidence that can be valuable to use. Some ways they will do this is by getting the actual lab results of your DUI test to ensure accuracy. They will also investigate and determine if the officer who pulled you over was being unreasonable when making the arrest.
It would be devastating to have this moment of lapsed judgment stick with you and stay on your record for years. It can hinder your ability to obtain jobs and impact other significant life qualities. To help avoid this from occurring, hiring a DUI attorney immediately after the occurrence can leverage the possibility for them to find any loopholes or fill in story gaps that will work in your favor.
One of the most common punishments is having your license taken away for a period of time. If you want to fight to keep your license, it is critical to hire an experienced DUI attorney that has a great comprehensive understanding of the drunk driving laws in your state. They can help by using specialized methods and evidence to reduce your case punishment, which can include you keeping your license.
In many studies conducted, it is shown that people who hire a DUI attorney soon after the incident have a much better outcome for their cases than those who do not. This is because attorneys are experienced and know how to negotiate correctly with the prosecuting attorney. For instance, if your test showed .09, and the sobriety test was marked inconclusive, the prosecutor may be convinced to lessen your charge and reduce the punishment.
Whether you had only one drink or three, when you are charged with a DUI, be proactive and seek adequate representation. It is not a minor misdemeanor when you are charged with driving intoxicated. It a criminal offense and is one that is not taken lightly. DUI lawyers are extraordinarily skilled and know the ins and outs of the sophisticated legal system methods and requirements. Those that are specifically knowledgeable on DUI cases will be able to offer you protection and be your safeguard by providing professional defense.
Just as the name suggests, incident reporting software is designed so that businesses can report any accidents and manage injuries sustained in the workplace. The purpose is simple, but the motivation for businesses is less clear. If you’re wondering why you should be investing in incident reporting software, allow us to explain!
In business, we have a duty to keep all employees and, in the case of retail brands, customers safe. While the odd fall and cut finger might not seem like much, reporting them actually helps with risk assessment. By making adjustments and introducing safety measures, this simple reporting might actually prevent a serious injury.
Over time, reporting and documenting small accidents may help you to improve security, safety, and all sorts of other areas. Managers in quality, environment, safety, and security all have something to work with. Are accidents occurring at similar times or on the same machines? Is it a case of human error or a weakness in the business?
When incidents aren’t reported, it can be difficult to get an accurate picture of how the business operates. With reporting, we see a clear list and will see when action is required. Especially when the same problems keep arising, the business will be more aware of employee safety.
When there’s actually a system in place to monitor and report incidents, this allows employees a platform to talk about their worries and complaints. Whether it’s environment, safety, or security focused, this is hugely important. With the business taking these comments seriously, employees start to feel valued and as though they’re having a real impact on the company’s growth.
These days, reputation within any industry is everything. If you use the wrong material in packaging or work with a manufacturer that uses harmful chemicals during production, the modern consumer will immediately look elsewhere. Therefore, it makes sense to generate a positive reputation, something achievable with incident reporting software. If consumers see that you take this sort of thing seriously, you will earn the respect of the people and hopefully rise above the competition.
You might see incident reporting software as an additional cost, but it’s actually one that comes with a return. Did you know that occupational accidents can cost businesses tens of thousands of dollars? For small businesses, this cost has the potential to be crippling. In the long-term, the cost of incident reporting software and then fixing small issues will ALWAYS be cheaper than dealing with a serious incident (both in cost and reputation!).
Leading on from the previous point, we think it’s always wise to protect employees and steer clear of potential fines, lawsuits, and issues with regulation compliance. In some industries, failure to report incidents is itself against the regulations set by the governing bodies. Therefore, we highly recommend learning the regulations in your industry and setting up the software as soon as possible.
Finally, forget the regulations and impact on reputation for a moment, we generally think that incident reporting software sets a precedent and creates a positive culture within the business. With this positive habit instilled in the business, caring for employees and taking feedback from employees gets ingrained into the culture of the whole organization.
Suddenly, everybody from top to bottom cares about safety, security, quality, and environmental issues. Considering incident reporting software will also make employees feel valued, boost your reputation, ensure compliance with regulations, and help with risk assessment, we think it’s essential for all businesses!
Luxury apartments have far more amenities than other apartments. This makes them more appealing if you have the money to spend on them. Since you will be spending a decent amount of money on a luxury apartment, you will want to know what you should look for, so your money is well spent.
Here are the most prominent features you should come to expect when looking for a luxury apartment.
You will usually only find covered parking and garages in luxury apartment complexes. These features will help protect your car from the elements.
Nothing can ruin the mood more than a rat running across the floor when you have a date over for some wine and appetizers. Pest infestations in your luxury apartment can break the deal for couples and tenants. The last thing you want to experience is sliding into bed and find that insects are crawling all over you. Pest control is usually a feature of luxury apartment complexes and is something that is a part of your monthly bill. You get the ability to call the main office anytime you have any issues with pests.
Although you will still have to take your trash to the curb, maintenance staff will take it from there to the dumpster multiple times a week. You have to deal with your garbage less than you would at a regular apartment complex.
A fitness center is a staple of luxury apartment complexes. This will save you money on getting a gym membership. This will save you time by not having to commute to a gym any time you want to exercise.
Everyone loves to dip into a swimming pool. This is also another common feature at luxury apartments that you will want to look out for.
A hot tub can be even more enjoyable than a swimming pool. Thankfully, this is a prominent feature at luxury apartment complexes as well. The hot tubs are usually located nearby the swimming pools. Relax and slip into a vegetative state after a long day at work in the hot tub.
Many luxury apartment complexes have courts for playing basketball and tennis. They will sometimes even have multiple courts for the same sport. These will let you enjoy some fun physical activity when you have downtime.
You want to make sure your apartment is safe and protected, which is something you will get at luxury apartment complexes. They may even have 24-hour monitoring, giving you even greater security, with the ability to respond to any security breach around the clock.
A luxury apartment is an investment in a more enjoyable environment. You will have access to many amenities that are not available at other types of apartments. Since it is going to cost you more money, you want to do your research and identify what sort of amenities luxury apartments that you are interested in have. If you’re going to make your life more convenient and enjoyable, you will find luxury apartment living is the way to go.
Within natural gas, we sometimes find what’s called H2S. Unfortunately, this is a highly corrosive gas; hydrogen sulfide. If we use the natural gas as fuel without first removing the harmful elements, the gas engines and transmission lines will quickly corrode. Therefore, before fuel is sent to the gas pipeline, H2S should always be removed.
Often, professionals will refer to this gas as ‘acid’ gas or ‘sour’ gas. If you hear this term, it essentially means natural gas that contains large quantities of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, or even another acidic gas.
Sometimes shortened to GSS (or called amine gas treating), the gas sweetening system allows us to achieve the goal of removing CO2 and H2S from natural gas. While H2S is extremely toxic itself, carbon dioxide creates carbonic acid when combined with water; this is why removing them is so important. The reason it’s called the sweetening system is because sulfur has a strong, sweet scent.
Typically, this step will occur after the condensates, oil, and water have all been removed. For all parties to remain safe and for the process to work properly, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and National Safety Council (NSC) have both introduced preventative measures. What’s more, the National Agency of Corrosion Engineers (NACE International) has also created product specifications and regulations.
In the industry, you’ll find several different solutions and companies who offer their own techniques for removing CO2 and H2S. Normally, they will remove the H2S first before then moving on to CO2 and any other dangerous gas. If the process is completed and harmful gasses remain, they will be taken in the next cycle.
While the sweetening system has lots of regulations and required permits, the chemical injection system is much safer and another solution you’re likely to find in the industry. As an alternative to amine plants, this process also avoids emissions and doesn’t require a huge capital investment to get started.
With a H2S scavenger injected into the system, the gas is ‘cleaned’ and freed from all harmful gasses. As well as H2S, the chemical injection system helps to resolve the following problems;
Now we’ve seen a couple of methods that can be employed to remove H2S from natural gas, why is this important in the first place? Let’s look at this gas in more detail.
First and foremost, we should say that we’re all familiar with this gas. As organic materials decay, we get a rotten-egg-like smell and this is H2S. When the body digests food, hydrogen sulfide is created. Of course, the amount we product in our bodies is tiny compared to what can be found as a byproduct of manufacturing and industrial processes. The reason we’re able to cope with our own H2S is that we’re designed to deal with small levels of exposure.
When we’re exposed to larger quantities, we put our health at risk. If it comes into contact with the skin, is inhaled, or consumed, there’s a risk of health concerns and even death. For those who work in natural gas drilling operations, mining facilities, paper mills, and other sites like this, they’re exposed to more hydrogen sulfide than the rest of the population. Therefore, these industries have introduced certain safety procedures and high-quality equipment.
In addition to this, we’ve seen more H2S removal processes enter the market. As well as those we’ve seen, removal is also possible with an absorption tower with water!
Over the years, Wikipedia has forged its way into the bookmark section of millions of internet users. As perhaps the best and most reliable online encyclopedia, it has pages on everything from goldfish to the 1992 World Series. Of course, one of the best features is that it’s open to everybody. The problem is often that most people don’t know how to write a proper Wiki-Page and end up getting their content removed. This is common, so if it’s happened to you, no worries, just follow this guide and try to publish another page. If these steps are outside your scope of knowledge, you can always perform a Google search for Wiki writers, or hire a professional Wiki writer, Beutler Writers are notorious for getting Wiki pages approved and published.
If you find a spot that seems to be lacking on Wikipedia, whether it’s your company, new technology, or just something that has escaped the thoughts of Wikipedia creators, you can create the page yourself. Here’s some advice to get started!
According to Wikipedia itself, there are nearly six million English articles. Before spending time and effort gathering resources and writing a page, check that a similar topic doesn’t exist already. Even if it’s currently under a different name, you can still help Wikipedia by adding a ‘redirect’ (i.e. people who search for your term will be redirected to a page that has all the same information but is under a different heading).
If your page (or a similar one) doesn’t exist, you can get started.
Does a page not exist because there isn’t enough interest for it on Wikipedia? When you submit a page, it needs to go through an approval process and Wikipedia uses a system based on whether or not a subject is ‘notable’. If you want to be approved, the subject needs to be sufficiently notable. Additionally, it needs to be verifiable through the citations you use.
If the topic isn’t worthwhile, notable, or there aren’t any references to it elsewhere on the internet, it’s probably something you can enjoy to yourself.
The page doesn’t already exist, and you think it is notable, this is great. What now? Well, it’s time to create your account. In order to start a unique page, you need an active account that has been present on the website for more than four days while offering at least ten edits. By making edits to existing pages, you show your value and it won’t be long before you’re writing your own page.
Now, we reach the most difficult stage of the process…actually writing the page. When you’re staring at a blank document, this can seem like a mountain of work. The best advice we can provide is to read the policy pages and guidelines, gain inspiration from other pages in the same niche, and get others to read and offer feedback.
Let’s not forget, Wikipedia is a public encyclopedia designed to offer the world knowledge on particular topics. When writing, you need to remain impartial and comment only on the topic at hand (not your opinions and views).
If you don’t have much experience with Wikipedia, to get started simply click on your user page. From here, click ‘Create’ and start writing. After writing in what’s called a ‘sandbox’, you’ll then need to move it across to an article namespace and this is where the publishing occurs.
Finally, if you need help, there’s nothing wrong with asking administrators and active editors for assistance. When all is finished, you can even use a Content Translation tool so that the page is accessible on the nearly 300 different language Wikipedia websites!
Many eco-friendly businesses are converting over to solar energy and the benefits it has on the environment are huge. This transition will revolutionize how we utilize natural energy sources to generate power for our local grids. The application is the same across the board, but the politics differ from state to state. The states that really take advantage of solar energy are obviously the ones that have businesses is states that receive a lot of sunshine. Florida, Southern California, Arizona, and Texas are all leaders in the Solar energy movement. Solar panels are being installed on buildings, parking garages, bus stops, and any other piece of commercial real estate that will facilitate the installation of rooftop solar panels. Areas where rooftop installation isn’t possible, solar grids can be installed. Solar grids can be built in large open areas of land where industrial or commercial structures don’t exist. Going solar helps reduce the carbon footprint on the environment and can ease the load of local energy providers during summer months when air conditioning units are running all day long. Converting to solar is a fairly simple process, finding a solar leasing company to facilitate the lease purchase and installation of the solar panels is going to be the first step in going solar.
After the paperwork is done and the lease is approved, the installation process can take 3-6 weeks. Panels need to be ordered, and inventory needs to be made of the components that will be necessary for installation. Rooftop installations are the most common and businesses with flat rooftops can take advantage of the real estate to build out complete solar grids. The amount of solar panels that a business needs is dependent on energy use. You will also want to make sure you are having quality solar panels installed, cheap panels made in China don’t quite last as long and therefore leave you in need of repair or replacement sooner than later. Having a solar lease specialist to walk you through an energy audit to determine how many panels you need will allow you to get exactly what you need and nothing more. Solar is often over sold since many solar specialists don’t take the time to truly evaluate the energy needs of a business. Having more panels than you need isn’t a bad thing, it means you are generating more power and if your local power company offers incentives or rebates then it can be even better for you. The issue becomes the lease payment, the more solar panels you have the greater your lease payment is going to be. Make sure you have an energy audit to truly assess your energy needs, talk with your solar specialist, understand what you are getting into, and then proceed with going solar.
Solar panels can have a 20 year life expectancy before needing to be replaced. You will definitely get a ROI with your panels in the first 10 years. Most leasing companies want to renew the lease and usually continue to cover repair and replacement costs if you are still paying them. However, if you opt out of your lease you can avoid those hefty monthly payments after the lease expires and save that money for future repairs. The money saved on energy is one value proposition, the other is the benefit solar has on the environment. Together if more residential and commercial properties go Solar, we can help reduce unnecessary wear and tear on the earth. The value of solar lasts a lifetime, and the lifetime of the generations that will come after us.
I decided to publish this post because of an experience my sister had looking for a mechanic in Redmond, Washington. We have all heard the horror stories of how mechanics have taken advantage of women over the years, and honestly, I think there are plenty of instances where men have been taken advantage of just as bad. After searching for a qualified mechanic to repair her car, she ended up using a company in Redmond called KD Automotive (https://www.kd-automotive.com/). KD is located off of Willows Road in the industrial area not far from the Redmond City Hall. She wound up there from a referral which is always nice. After talking to the manager she decided it seemed like a good place to do business and proceeded to have her car fixed at a very affordable price that came in far below what the other quotes were. Finding a mechanic can be difficult regardless which state you live in, so here are some helpful pointers to get your vehicle back up and running with the best mechanic in your area.
Most Americans rely heavily on their vehicles for every day transportation. Whether it’s driving to work, carting the kids around or hauling the family on a well-deserved vacation, your vehicle is a workhorse. Since you use it so often, it makes sense to take care of its maintenance, much like anything else of value. To best care for your car, truck or van, you should enlist the services of a reputable mechanic.
Having a personal mechanic, or one that you truly trust, can be a godsend for your vehicles. A knowledgeable professional in any field is that knows you and your situation can only be an asset. If you are considering buying a used car, for example, having someone who knows which defects to look for can help you steer away from a lemon. Also, he or she can give you advice on how to keep your vehicle in top shape, and relay any telltale signs of problematic issues. When you take your car to the same mechanic, they get to know your car intimately, as opposed to going from mechanic to mechanic. A personal mechanic is more likely to give you a deal on services or parts whenever possible, too, knowing that you will be returning for additional services in the future.
So how do you find a reputable vehicle serviceperson, one that is skilled, experienced and affordable? It starts with research. Ask your family and friends for recommendations; they may know someone who can keep your car in shape that they trust. Online reviews can be helpful, too, to a certain degree. If a mechanic has a reputation for over-charging clients, you will see a series of comments online to reflect that concern. You will also see testimonials from clients who swear by their mechanic’s skills; this information should give you a good place to start with your search. Once you have determined which mechanics are close to you that have a good reputation, it is time to see who will be the best choice for you.
When you interview a mechanic or take your car in for a service test, make sure the mechanic is ASA or ASE certified. These organizations require a code of ethics for their members. See if the shop is AAA certified, or has a good standing with the Better Business Bureau. Ask probing questions of your potential mechanic; it’s imperative that the mechanic knows how to handle a variety of situations and a variety of vehicles. If you are strictly a Chevrolet family, you will want to find someone who either specializes in the brand or can fix just about anything. For families that own a few different types of vehicles, it’s important to find someone skilled in many different models and makes. Makes sure that the mechanic can explain any problems in layman’s terms. It does you little good to have a doctor explain what ails you in medical jargon; the same is true with your car. You will also want to make sure that any recommendations the mechanic makes can be backed up with valid reasons for the repair.
You can always “test” the mechanic by bringing in your car for a particular service and then determine the labor cost, labor time, and parts costs. Get an estimate for the repairs in writing before he or she starts on your car. Investigate online the cost of repairs at other shops; keep in mind that specific dealership repair shops charge more since they specialize in a particular brand of car. You will also want to ensure that the mechanic has the proper tools to work on your car. Certain brands, like Mercedes, require different care than American made cars; and the mechanic should not only have the expertise to work on this type of vehicle, but the equipment to properly ensure it is fixed correctly.
There are other attributes that a good mechanic should possess, like excellent communication skills. Not only should he or she be able to explain what is wrong with your car so that you can easily understand, but there must be an ease in the conversation. You may find a mechanic who is great with his or her hands but cannot convey to you what’s going on with your car, it may not benefit you in the long run, especially if you are looking for a long-term relationship. Assess how you are treated by the repair shop; did you feel rushed and as if your questions were not answered? If a change in the repair needed to be made, did the mechanic call you for authorization first? Were you satisfied with the repairs? Service is an important part of the entire process.
Your mechanic of choice should also know how to effectively problem solve. Sometimes, he or she will need to think outside the box to fix your vehicle. While you don’t want your car to be slapped together, you do want a mechanic who can conceivably repair a problem with more than one solution.
Consider, too, how you drive your vehicle. Are you “hard” on your cars? Do you go off-roading in your Camry? Do you own a vintage car that requires special care? If you own a brand new vehicle, you will need to find someone who knows the innovative computerized engines found in newer models. The kind of mechanic you need will be contingent upon the specialized needs of your vehicle. This is another reason finding a mechanic who can communicate with you is an important factor in keeping your car running its best.
Sometimes, you may decide that convenience trumps cost. If you find two equally qualified mechanics and one happens to be closer to you than the other, that may be the deciding factor. Or, maybe you find an experienced mechanic who checks all the boxes but another one who is willing to take your vehicle on off-hours, or even do a “house calls”; these are factors that may help you choose your vehicle’s long-term caretaker.
Your car is your baby; in order to keep it running smoothly, you need to find the right person to care for it so choose wisely!
Jury trials are a very precarious situation, one where there’s a lot at stake. Depending upon the nature of the case and its complexity, either side, or both, may want to enlist the services of an expert witness. This witness is one who can provide testimony to either substantiate or refute evidence that has been presented at trial. It could be a forensic expert, or someone who possesses certain technical knowledge who is called in to testify regarding his or her skill or experience in a particular field.
In construction, expert witness testimonies are needed for home owners and developers that have construction defects and rely on an expert witness testimony in court to win the case for any job that has flaws. Building projects that are not done to code are also something that require an expert witness testimony. Companies like Goodman Consulting out of Oklahoma City are experts in this area. You can visit their website here at https://tcdexpert.com/ to learn more about the process and how expert witnesses in the construction industry work with home owners and developers in the court of law.
An expert witness’s duty in a trial is to provide fair, independent and impartial information regarding his or her direct knowledge of a subject, and to make it easier for the jury to understand. To be deemed an expert witness by the court, one must pass the Daubert test; a method utilized by the federal courts to determine is someone has the experience or knowledge necessary to be called an “expert”. If so, the testimony is admissible in court; if not, the testimony is thrown out. The Daubert test takes into account the following: whether or not the reasoning underneath the testimony is scientifically valid and if the reasoning can be applied to the facts in the issue. The court must determine if the potential expert’s testimony is relevant and reliable.
Not all expert witnesses are selected due to their academic backgrounds; some are considered experts just on their experience and expertise. While an unusual example, the movie “My Cousin Vinny” presents an expert witness that illustrates this point. Marissa Tomei’s character in the movie is called upon to be an expert witness regarding tire treads, even though the expert witness for the other side has already stated that the tires match those found on the defendant’s car. A car matching the defendant’s car had been seen leaving the scene of a murder and it had left behind tire skid marks. She is called upon to refute the expert witness’ testimony based upon her intricate automotive knowledge. The prosecution questions her true expertise; she proceeds to rattle off her personal experience rebuilding cars. The attorney then tries to trick her with a question he believes only an automobile mechanic would know; she soundly puts him in his place with her answer and he concedes to her expert witness testimony. While only a movie, it demonstrates the Federal Rule of Evidence 702, which states that an expert witness can be one who must have “knowledge, skill, experience, training or education” that will “help the trier of fact to understand the evidence or to determine a fact in issue.”
Expert witness testimony can be introduced in any court, from family court to criminal court. These witnesses, based on their knowledge and the subject matter, can command several hundred dollars per hour for their fee, making it potentially difficult to afford one. If you happen to be an expert in a field, you can join a service that provides expert witness testimony to the court. They will call upon you when they have a case that matches your expertise, and then you would proceed to provide the information you know to the judge and/or jury. You do, also, have to do your own research because your reputation can be destroyed on the stand if you are unprepared. Taking the word of the attorney that is hiring you for your services will not be enough; you will need to verify facts yourself to ensure your integrity.
Additionally, you must be an objective witness, testifying to what you know is fact. By trying to sway the facts to one side of the argument or the other will damage your credibility. Most attorneys would agree, too, that you keep writing to a minimum. Any notes, correspondence, reports, etc., that you may have written down, even as a preliminary outline, may be presented as discovery, including any reservations you may have, or any small opening the other side may use to impede your credibility.
Expert witnesses have played a major part in some very famous trials. The trial of George Zimmerman, accused of shooting and killing teenager Trayvon Martin, claimed self-defense. An expert witness was called by the defense, and he corroborated the story that Zimmerman’s injuries were consistent with a struggle. The expert witness, Vincent Di Maio, is an expert in gunshot wounds, and he concluded that Martin’s clothing was in a position where he would have been leaning forward when he was shot. This, too, matched the story given my Zimmerman and many believed that Di Maio’s testimony was what sealed the deal: Zimmerman was acquitted of both second-degree murder and manslaughter.
An expert’s testimony can make or break a case, so it is imperative to find someone with a legitimate background who is completely unflappable while on the stand. They should be able to submit their facts in an unbiased, straight-forward manner, while maintaining composure regardless of the circumstances. Lives could potentially hang in the balance based on an expert’s testimony, a fact that has been seen in many cases over the years.